Saturday, 2 February 2013

Handling POSIX signals

When programming for *nix systems, like it or not, sooner or later your application will be bothered with POSIX signals. And even if signals are considered to be a broken design, you have to live with them, hammered with some trepidation. And even if you've tinkered with it and managed to install some handlers, you can't really do much in a signal handler context. You can merely set some flag and get out of there if you don't want to get into trouble. And if you have to whack some threads in, you feel completely screwed as there's no certainty whatsoever of which thread would receive signals. A bit intimidating, isn't it?

There's an attempt to remedy this creepy situation with sigwait(3) and there's a nice article about it. So fear no more, you're not stranded as there's even a better solution: signalfd(2). It gives you a file descriptor so you can choose how to handle signals—be it blocking read(2) in a separate thread, some sort of poll(2) which nicely integrates with polling loops (GMainLoop, DBusWatch etc.) or anything else you'd like to do with a file descriptor.

The problem

Before I show an example of one approach to signal handling, I'd like to elaborate a bit more on problems you may encounter with "traditional" signal handling. It'll be easier for me to use a multi-threaded application example although single-threaded applications are also negatively affected but in a more subtle manner. Feels a bit contrived but I've seen it in the field.

Let's suppose someone wants to use a thread synchronization mechanism (e. g. a mutex) in a signal handler. Signals are considered to be software interruptions and their handlers are executed uninterrupted. If someone attempts to protect some shared (global) data with thread-based locks, it will apparently lead to a deadlock:

int globalData;
std::mutex globalMutex;

void foo()
  // ... some stuff

    std::lock_guard<std::mutex> lock(globalMutex);
    globalData = 1; // deal with the global data

  // ... some other stuff

void handler()
  std::lock_guard<std::mutex> lock(globalMutex);
  if (globalData == 0) // deal with the global data
    // ... something miserable
  } else {
    // ... something funny
It's conceivable that foo() can grab the mutex right before the process receives a signal. The handler() function is called as the signal handler. It tries to get the mutex without a success and it ends up with a deadlock since it is not scheduled out and doesn't let foo() release the mutex. Completely botched.

On the other hand, we cannot leave global data unprotected since there's no guarantee that the data can be accessed atomically. We could use atomics here but some architectures still use gUSA to provide atomicity which might complicate things in the context of a signal handler and in general the resource you want to protect might not be as simple as a single atomic structure.

The solution

I chose to civilize signal handling by making it thread-friendly (I can use mutexes and what not). The signal handler runs in a dedicated thread but there are other ways of doing it as the signal delivery is serialized by signalfd(2). You may even use it in a single-threaded application where you will probably have some sort of a main loop and check for any signals delivered to the application process at your leisure.

The example application is available here. Below I present only the main idea.

// protect some shared resource, let it be the standard output
std::mutex g_mutex;

void signal_handler(const int fd) {
  struct ::signalfd_siginfo si;
  while (const int bytes = ::read(fd, &si, sizeof(si))) {
    std::lock_guard<std::mutex> lock(g_mutex);
    switch (si.ssi_signo) {
    // Handle signals here

int main() {
  ::sigset_t mask;
  // block all signals
  ::pthread_sigmask(SIG_BLOCK, &mask, NULL);

  // unblock all signals but deliver through a file descriptor
  const int fd = ::signalfd(-1, &mask, 0);
  std::thread t(signal_handler, fd);
  // do some other stuff
First it blocks all signals and then unblocks them in the signalfd(2) call so they all are delivered through a file descriptor. The signals do not affect the application (except for SIGKILL and SIGSTOP) until the application reads from the descriptor and decides what to do about them. Nice and elegant.

And here's an example session on a x86 Linux PC with GCC 4.7.2.

$ g++ -O3 -std=c++11 signal-handler.cpp -pthread -o /tmp/test
$ !$ &
[1] 4135
$ kill -SIGUSR1 %
Received signal 10
$ kill -SIGUSR2 %
Received signal 12
$ kill -SIGTERM %
Quitting application...

Bear in mind that any approach to signal handling assumes you have control over the main thread of the application. If you are writing a library that is called from the main application that you can't control, then you're thrown back at its way of signal handling and other libraries it uses. This is a difficult situation and frankly there's no robust solution to it. Every new thread inherits signal mask from its parent thread, so when it's started it potentially has all signals unblocked until it blocks them with pthread_sigmask(3) call. Until that point new threads may still receive unsolicited signals.

Having the caveat above in mind I wish you best luck with signal handling. It doesn't have to be difficult. Just try to push traditional way of doing it toward oblivion and embrace signalfd(2) as soon as you can.